Necessary reading to understand Mine's Action Canada's demining outlook.
30 September 1999; Deadline for registration (postmark)
30 November 1999; Deadline for preliminary proposals
January 2000; Acceptance of preliminary proposals announced
1 May 2000; Deadline for final research papers (postmark)
June 2000 Winners announced
First Prize (one to be awarded) $5000
Second Prize (two to be awarded) $2500
Third Prize (four to be awarded) $1000
Mines Action Canadas Background
Needs, from the University of Western Australia (Practical)
Also from the same source, Mines
and Minefields -- Defining the Problem. (Practical))
The concepts were succinctly stated by S
Salter in "Researchers vs. Practicality and Deminers" (Conf. Rept)
" It is slow and expensive to transport heavy equipment over bad or non-existent
roads, especially if containers are shipped to the wrong port. Spare parts
are hard to get, so reliability is crucial. Because of this there is a
prejudice against sophisticated designs. Vegetation is a continuous
problem for all demining work. Local politicians see maximizing local employment
as being much m http://electrochem.cwru.edu/estir/inet.htm#sear
ore important than getting rid of mines. The well-intentioned insistence
by the United Nations on salaries for deminers at several times the local
rate distorts the labour market in that demining can become the biggest
and most lucrative industry. Thus most workers want the project to continue
University of Ottawa Library: telnet lib.uottawa.ca
Type: orbis login: pubmrt
A complete search terminal is avaliable in the MacOdrum Library.
Search Ontraio Libraries. http//library/usask.ca/hytel/ca0/ON.html
They will often give a telnet address and instructions. I found it better
to get out of the browser to telnet.
The NRC library CISTI, http://www.cisti.nrc.ca/cisti/
or more direct http://cat.cisti.nrc.ca/search
Carleton students may obtain CISTI material through interlibrary
loan in the MacOdrum Library.
Using the Internet for Landmine Projects
LANDMINE TECHNICAL LINKS
The Canadian Department of National Defense has several summaries with
pictures. Good for getting your feet wet.(Summary)
Technologies Which Do Not Detect Explosives
Which Detect Explosives
Detection of Minefields
Neutralization R & D
The US Department of Defense has a technology
catalog which overviews their (mostly high-tech) tools (Summary)
Mine detection technologies summaries.
Mine search and/or destroy robot summaries.
Lists organizations involved in solving the global landmine problem,
especially university research centres.
& Eng News, Mar '97 article contains a little on detonator
action and explosives used. (Chem)
Chemical & Engineering News March 10, 1997 American Chemical
Searching for better landmine detectors Specific, rapid, and cost-effective
detection is key
printed A sidebar in an article above.
Chemistry is helping develop tools to find and remove mines; banning
them will require political will.
John Walker describes eight types with pictures. Common
anti-personnel mines. (Mines)
Mine Detection Technologies
Demining Technology Center (DeTeC)
at Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne (EPFL)
Summary of Chemical
Detection devices, some rather far out. [Alt
source Chem & Eng News] (Chem
Ph. Machler, "Detection Technologies for Anti-Personnel Mines," A Brief
Summary of several methods, usually with references. (Sensors Survey)
Gros & Bruschini, "Sensor
Technologies for the Detection of Antipersonnel mines. A survey of
current research and system developments," ISMCR'96. (Sensor Survey)
Bruschini & Gros, "A Survey
of Current Sensor Technology Research for the Detection of Land mines",
SusDem '97. (Sensor Survey)
Bruschini & Gros, "A
Survey of Research on Sensor Technology for Landmine Detection," Journal
of Humanitarian Demining; Surveys research on landmine sensor technology
in more detail than most. (Sensor Survey)
Home page for Subsurface Geotechnical:
Gives no technical details, but tells roughly what
applications are handled by each method.
Methods include ground resistance, magnetometer measurements, and ground-penetrating
The metal detector is the most popular sensor to
detect mines. Unfortunately many mines are mostly plastic.
Prodding the Ground
Prodding by hand is presently the only way that
guarantees an exhaustive detection of any landmine.
Clearing mine fields by modified tanks, trucks and
Acoustics and Acoustic Imaging
Pulsing a laser in air causes molecules in the air
to heat and cool. This cycling causes an acoustic wave the energy and spectrum
of which can identify the molecules. Jaycor has a project in this area.
Thermal Imaging, IR.
Buried mines have a different density than the surrounding
ground - thus retaining or dissipating heat at a different rate. These
temperature differentials can be seen at seen at dawn and dusk.
A not yet explored idea to find buried mines is
to breed plants sensitive to the presence of TNT in the soil. [Brief
Dogs are used to find mines. They are good for finding
isolated mines, or whether a field is mined.
Cal Tech is working on an artificial nose. [Brief
Antibodies and Genetically Engineered Biosensors
Antibodies are very selective to other molecules.
Could they be made sensitive to TNT? [Brief
Summary] Some people even talk about genetically engineered cockroaches.
In Sweden, Bofors Applied Technology used a quartz crystal covered
with antibodies. When TNT binds to the antibodies, the crystal frequency
changes [Brief Mention]
Forced reaction of TNT by Laser
Light energy triggers the explosive reaction of the TNT molecule.
The heat increase can then by detected. The IBM research lab in Switzerland
has found a new type of temperature sensor based on the deformation of
nano-technology cantilever beams. [Brief
Summary] Barringer Technologies is usin g this for mine detection.
Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)
IMS separates ionized molecular compounds on the
basis of their transition times when subjected to an electric field in
a tube. This time is then compared to stored transition times of known
compounds. Therefore it is possible to distinguish TNT from other molecules.
This technique is fast.
Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry
Molecular ions corresponding to explosives are excited
to dissociate into fragments. Negative ions are attracted by a potential
and fall into traps according to mass and charge. [Brief
Reversal Electron Attachment Detector
When high electronegative groups like NO2 are hit
by low energy electrons the electrons attach efficiently. A detector using
this is being developed at NASA's JPL. [Brief
Impulse Radar or Microwave
The measure of the resonance frequencies of the
ground to a radar impulse depends on buried objects. At frequencies whose
wavelengths are comparable to the overall size of the object, the smaller
details of the structure are irrelevant, making it possible to easily identify
the general shape and the material properties of a body. [Brief
its radar system that excites the self-resonant frequencies of targets.
Thermal Neutron Excitation
Slow (thermal) neutrons activate nitrogen and chlorine
and cause them to emit gamma rays of known spectra.
Science Applications International and DREO have developed prototypes.
Nuclear Quadrapole Resonance
Probing Nitrogen-14 with certain radio frequencies
will give characteristic signals in the same way an NMR scan in a hospital
does. Quantum Magnetics is developing detectors. [Brief
J. Humanitarian Demining devotes 2
pages to NQRs in its survey and gives several journal references.
In X-ray tomography, the emitted radiation, either
in the form of neutrons or gamma rays, is designed to react with different
elemental components of the object of interest to produce a reaction particular
to the specific detector application. [Brief
Draw your own conclusions [Unmonitored
Pilot Test Site Auburn University
Auburn University collected test data using the time-domain EM sensor
in the Scheibel PSS-12 mine detector. The PSS-12 is a light weight, hand
held, metallic mine detector capable of detecting very small metallic objects
such as small firing pins in plastic and wooden mines. It is also capable
of detecting mines in fresh or salt water, and objects buried up to 20
inches in the ground. (Metal Det)
For a short internal paragraph on the current use of Metal Detectors
in Humanitarian Demining (printed)
C. Bruschini, "Metal Detectors in Civil Engineering and Humanitarian Demining",
Struct Engin '98 (Metal Det)
About pulse induction
metal detectors; posted by Protovale for detecting re-bars in concrete
but a good tutorial. Their Application Note T23 also tells about problems
with magnetic soils. (Metal Det)
Mark Rowan & William Lahr have an excellent article on "How Metal Detectors
Work." Two sources are 1;2;
"1" seems to have pictures that "2" does not. (Metal Det)
Ultramag gives some background on proton magnetometers.
Metal Loactor Design theory from Ambit; see Circuits.
summary. Contains a paragraph about the types of magnetometers and gradiometers
most often used to detect buried munitions:
Fluxgate Magnetometers, Proton Precession Magnetometers, Optically
Pumped Atomic Magnetometers.
Conductivity meters do not respond to magnetic materials and are grouped
as frequency domain or time domain.It also mentions and GPRadar. (Metal
Federal de Lausanne
Improved scanning metal detector proposal. While moving a metal detector
over the ground one can build a 2D image of the signal, related to the
content of the ground. Fusing that image with the of the results provided
by a GPR (ground penetrating radar), odor sensor, etc. will provide reliable
information on the presence of mines. (printed)
continued. GPR and Metal Detector fused into a portable System. (printed)
More fully expanded in; C.
Bruschini et al, "Ground PenetratingRadar and Induction Coil Sensor
Imaging for Antipersonnel Mines detection," (Grd Pent Radar)
image from a metal detector. Scanning is mentioned in DeTeC survey
by Bernard Gross
Ohmslaw's circuit for a metal
detector, no description.
List of metal detector patents
Build your own metal detector
Beat Frequency Oscillator detector. Pulse-induction detector
mentioned but not yet available.
GoldPic 3 pulse induction metal
detector avaliable as a kit for US42 from South Africa.(Metal Det Cir)
Geotech has copies
of magazine articles, theory and links. (metal det,
from Popular Electronics, August 1981
from1980 Practical Electronics. A VLF design with ground balance and a
TR discriminate mode.
from 1988 Practical Electronics. A phase-type VLF detector with a very
simple coil configuration. It is a TR (Transmit Receive) detector that
is not induction balance!
Deep Seeking Metal Detector from Solid State Electronics Projects by
Metal Detector from 1980 Wireless World. It also gives good explainations.
The ProScan Pulse-Induction
Metal Detector from 1994 Everyday Practical Electronics. It uses a
Locator Design. A comprehensive analysis and survey of
metal locator techniques and principles. Published from the results
and reports of AMBIT International. (Metal Det Theory)
The same site proposes the Radiometer
Ferret. a proposed design for an advanced Field /Phase metal Detector.(Metal
This site claims
to sells plans
for a low-cost proton magnetometer for $40 US.
Dconn (UK) sells
Andrew Palmer, The Metal Detector
Book, avaliable in the Ottawa bubllic library.
Prods, Visors, Shields
Demining research at the Univ
of Western Australia tends to be very practical. The head
link to their tools shows their work on prods,
(Prod) as well as water jets, saws, training mines . . .
Deminer's Needs, also from Univ. of Western
Australia, Attempts to define the operational needs of individual deminers
clearing minefields in different countries, and how these needs are being
met now. It tells about trip wires, problems with data fusing, chain saws
Some U of
Alberta design projects with multiple prods, plastic detecting prods,
and others. (Prods)
Ground probing sensor.
A proposed device designed to resemble the manual probing technique.
The sensing device consists of one or more independently actuated linear
modules with 30 cm needles on the end, equipped with position, speed and
force feedback using an incremental encoder and microswitches.
A prototype device was attached to a mobile robot in Croatia. (Prods)
DEW engineering has developed a smart probe which will
Ground conductivity as a method of mine detection is mentioned by the Canadian
Dept. of National Defense in their technologies
list. They say only that it is not proven.
A conductivity devise to measure ore thickness
is mentioned in the Christian Science Monitor
summary. Gives a paragraph about the types of conductivity sensors used
Frequency Domain Conductivity Meters
Time Domain Conductivity Meters
It also describes magnetometers and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR).
( Metal Det)
has a geophysics course which describes ground sensors in particular he
has a ground
resistivity measurement primer which appears to be very well done.
It describes how the ground layers effect potential patterns.
quite a good technical summary of the Transient Electromagnetic Method
(TEM) which includes equations. The method appears about the same as electromagnetic
induction below. The used it to find unexploded ordinance in lake Erie.
Printed in Proc. Applic pf Geophysics to Eng & Envr, '95
Mark Everett at Texas
A&M shows what electromagnetic induction is. Go down his page to "Controlled
Source Electromagnetics". Also "Electrical
Methods in Geophysics Research" points out it is under 10 kHz and over
1 m. A book, Prem V. Sharma 1997. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics,
Cambridge, is used in their Geophysical
Measurements course:- (Electrical)
Electrical resistivity as a method of finding oil and water are mentioned
come with little technical detail.
Swedish Mine Fighter (SMF)
is a steel plate with closely placed hardened steel spikes fastened to
it. This is commonly pushed into the ground by a back hoe. It explodes
The US Department of Defense has a technology
catalog which overviews many mechanical tools.(Summary)
Acoustics, Acoustic Imaging
J. Don, "Using acoustic impulses to identify a buried nonmetalic object,"
1994 Acoust Soc. Am. Meeting
http://www.physics.monash.edu.au/research/impuacou/ finds J.Don but
not the paper.
J. Don, C.G., Lawrence, D.E. and Rogers, A.J., "Using acoustic impulses
to detect buried objects," 16th Int. Cong. On Acoustics, Seattle, USA.,
June 1998: J.Acoust. Soc.Am. 103 (5, Pt 2) 2950 (1998).
National Center for Physical Acoustics, University of Mississippi
Dr. James Sabatier uses acoustics to find buried objects including
In a recent initial round of tests at Fort A.P. Hill near Fredericksburg,
Va., a technique devised by Dr. James Sabatier detected 100 percent of
the antipersonnel and antitank mines without a single false alarm. The
system uses sound waves and laser beams to scan the ground's surface and
identify vibrational patterns produced by buried mines.
A Jaycor commercial
preproduct description using ultrasound. Done in air.
J. Humanitarian Demining devotes two pages
to ultrasound in its survey and gives two references.
Horowitz P., et al, "New technological approaches to humanitarian demining,"
(report JSR-96-115), JASN, The MITER Corp., McLean, Virginia, Nov. 1996.
Kercel, S.W. et al. "Novel methods for detecting buried explosive devices,"
SPIE '96, pp.467-477.
Accoustic sensors at 25kHz are used in a Scientific American Experiment
(Nothing to do with land mines). They describe how to drive the transducers
and where to obtain them in "Producing Light from a Bubble of Air,"
by Robert A. Hiller and Bradley P. Barber, Sci Amer., pp. 96-98, Feb. 1995.
Thermal Imaging, IR
J. Humanitarian Demining devotes 1.5 pages
to IR in its survey and gives several journal references.
From Sean Dorf , James VanDalen and Eric Charron
describes parts, scehmatics and software for making IR detectors from
old TV remotes etc.
IR camera vendor. describes applications and some technical details.
Prices on IR cameras range from $8000 to $80,000.
Contains current landmine sensor sensitivities and ranges.
an ultrasensitive, real-time portable device for the detection of trace
compounds in the air.
Odor Sensors including Dogs
Click for a good
one page summary of its principle of operation (Chem. PhotoAc)
Christian Science Monitor "For
Insight Into Finding Land Mines, Scientists Have Gone to the Dogs"
Mentions chemical-sensitive fluorescent dyes at the end of optical fibers.
Electrical-conductivity devise that measures ore vein thickness
X-Ray scattering imager (Sniff)
A Table of Bibliographies for Vapor Detection of Landmines
Get paper copy yourself I think.
Jaycor has an ultrasensitive, real-time device for the detection of
trace compounds in the air.
Also a good one-page
summary of its principle of operation.
Surface-Penetrating Radar (Ground-Penetrating
Comments on using GPRadar are included in several magnetometer
National Groundwater Association's list
of companies, with contact info, that sell things for locating ground
water.This includes Ground-Penetrating Radar and Geophysical Data Processing
Ground Penetrating Radar; product description from the Era
Technology. (Grd Pent Radar)
http://wwwgiscogeo.com/pages/giscogpr.htm, The Pipe Hawk system for
The home page
of the Ground Penetrating Radar Group at the Unversity of Cape Town. Contains
information on the development of low-cost, high-performance SFCW Ground
Penetration Radars. The primary application is Landmine detection. This
page includes a page:-
A Ground Penetrating Radar for Landmine Detection (printed)
C. Bruschini et al, "Ground PenetratingRadar and Induction Coil Sensor
Imaging for Antipersonnel Mines detection," Resutlts of combining the two
methods. (Grd Pent Radar)
J. Humanitarian Demining article covers testing
ground penetrating radar in Cambodia. The hard ground, 40 degree heat
and false alarms changed a lot of preconceptions. Five references on detection
testing including one on sandboxes. (Grd Pent Radar)
David Daniels' book, Surface-Penetrating Radar has won the Rayleigh
Book Award of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, (IEE) for the most
outstanding publication of the year (1997). Experts in the field have acknowledged
the book as the first to cover the detection of landmines and buried weapons
320pp., ISBN 0 85296 862 0, 1996, 85 Pounds US$ 139; published by INSPEC,
Hardcover (December 1996)
Inspec/IEE; ISBN: 0852968620
Barns and Nobel: bn.com Price: $139.00, Special Order: Ships 3-5 weeks
Chapters does not know it exists. Amazon.com says it is out of print.
$130 from FatBrain
PIERS 1997 Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium
July 7-11, 1997 Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
This is the big names in SPR. Only titles are on the web.
But a good source of names for further searches.
of ground-penetrating radar papers from Ohio State, starting with:
1. D. L. Moffatt and R. J. Puskar, ``A Subsurface Electromagnetic
Pulse Radar,'' Geophysics, June 1976.
Some of the more recent reference have links to the WWW.
Thermal Neutron Excitation
J. Humanitarian Demining devotes 2 pages
to thermal neutrons in its survey and gives several journal references.
Battery Chargers For Demining Equipment
Some references from the Electrochemical
"Build the fuel gauge --- a capacity indicator for your battery pack, "
J. Pivnichny, Electronics Now, Vol. 68, No. 4, pp. 58-59, 74, April 1997.
"Batteries reborn (rechargeable batteries)," Popular Mechanics, Vol. 171,
No. 1, pp. 37-39, January 1994.
"High energy batteries," Popular Science, Vol. 242, No. 2, pp. 64-68 and
92, February 1993.
"Energy-storage systems (batteries)," F.R. Kalhammer, Scientific American,
Vol. 241, No. 6, pp. 56-65, Dec. 1979.
Battery chemistry, general descritpion of batteries (M.M. Lerner,
Oregon State University) http://www.chem.orst.edu/ch411/scbatt.htm
Battery information (Primarily relating to portable computer use.)
Car Battery Frequently Asked Questions http://nyquist.ee.ualberta.ca/~schmaus/batfaq.html
Robots, Vehicle Mounts
Marconi has combined ground penetrating
radar and metal detection IR and GPS in a mobile unit. (Product)
Mine Explorer (Pemex) is a two-wheeled robot built for cross-country
navigation and to evaluate sensors for anti-personnel mines detection.
It weighs less than 16 kg. Rechargeable batteries last 60 minutes
and give a maximum speed of 6 km/hr (printed)
Robot Project: Mine Detecting Robot. A survivable vehicle for traversing
a minefield or executing a search pattern.
of Mines Action "Humanitarian
Demining and Robotics" Y. Baudoin, et al, describe several research
Mine Clearance Robots
This area contains documents describing the Minerats project. An attempt
to deploy advanced sensor and robotics for the detection and removal of
anti-personnel mines. (printed)
It references the ZagrebWorkshop held Sept. 29-Oct. 1, 1997. SusDem
'97, an international workshop on sustainable humanitarian demining held
in Zagreb, Croatia.
Proceedings of the conference are available free of charge by E-mail
Landmines on WWW sites and references.
Summary of landmine WWW pages
U of Alberta links. Their obsolete URL appears on many sites.
US Dept National Defense humanitarian demining links.
A large list with no comments but organized as:
Commercial Demining Companies,
International and Non-Government Organizations,
Research & Development (Academic, Government,
ESPRIT Humanitarian Demining R&D Projects on sensors, fusing multiple
sensors, and vehicle-mounted sensors (Summary ESPIRIT)
Gives EPFL links and technical articles.
Annotated Links including a section marked technical.
James Madison University Links
Large bunch of links from Canadian Forces College.
Links for many geophysical methods. Many are the basis for mine detection.
Worth following up.
Other sources of mine iInformation
Anti-Personnel Land Mine Ban Project of "Physicians for Global Survival"
Have good links to major sites, like the Livermore Labs below.!
http://www.llnl.gov/landmine/landmine_bibliography.html, Lawrence Livermore
Labs commented bibliography
See also ground conductivity link pages.
SPI E Proceedings
The major source of technical papers on demining.
Proc. SPIE Vol. 3079, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines
and Minelike Targets II, Abinash C. Dubey; Robert L. Barnard; Ed
852 pages; 75 papers * Jul 1997 * $87 / $104 / $116 * Status: IN
Proc. SPIE Vol. 3270, Methods for Ultrasensitive Detection, Bryan
Probably not so good
Proc. SPIE Vol. 3392, Detection and Remediation Technologies for
Mines and Minelike Targets III, Abinash C. Dubey; James F. Harvey;
J. Thomas Broach; Eds.
1306 pages; 122 papers * Sep 1998 * $125 / $149 / $166 * Status: IN
Proc. SPIE Vol. 2765, Detection and Remediation
Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets, Abinash C. Dubey; Robert
L. Barnard; Colin J. Lowe; John, E. McFee; Eds.
568 pages; 53 papers * May 1996 * $71 / $85 / $94 * Status: IN
Proc. SPIE Vol. 2496, Detection Technologies for Mines and Minelike
Targets, Abinash C. Dubey; Ivan Cindrich; James M. Ralston; Kelly A.
1048 pages; 95 papers * Jun 1995 * $101 / $121 / $134 * Status: IN
Miscilaneous Disorganized References
ountermine information focuses on three areas: Threat, Databases and
The proliferation of landmines occurs most frequently in conflict-ravaged,
Humanitarian Demining Developmental Technologies 1998
Table of Contents Main Page Document Available in PDF Format
John Walkers most excellent slides source.
Workshop on Identification of Standard Methodologies in the Context
of Anti-Personnel Landmines Localisation and Identification, organized
by Advanced Techniques Unit, Space Applications Institute, Joint Research
Centre, European Commission 27-29 October 1997, JRC-Ispra, Italy
Summary of the Workshop recommendations and findings Compiled by S.
Worth another look, Not printed.
Description of projects for landmine information systems.(Not printed)
Look for GeoModel Inc. didn't get URL they dhave a ground resistivity
machine I think
Technology Database but of requirements Not much use
Just maybe this gets into ISP
put 2nd-ISP-95 in "md"
The right link to James Madison University.
This has a web-based demining magazine
This is a USDofD publication
gv on suns will not read their pdf.
Starting point for his course. Very good
Open-File Report 95-77
A bibliography of some geophysical computer programs, databases, and
maps from the U.S. Geological Survey, 1971-1994